日知其所亡 » 听 与 聽

听 与 聽

2005年4月14日 | 分类: 未分类 | 标签:

一 “听”是一个字
《说文》:“听,笑皃,从口,斤声,宜引切”;段玉裁《注》引司马相如《上林赋》“亡是公听然而笑”为证。《龙龛手鉴》曰:“听,口大皃”;《玉篇》曰:“听,仰鼻,又笑皃”;《集韵》:“听,嗞口开皃”;《正字通》引杨慎曰:“听、古哂字”;按人笑,多作仰首张口状,故“口大”、“仰鼻”、“嗞口开”、“哂”等义项,均与《说文》所谓“笑皃”无甚区别。易言之,可以说《说文》的解释最准确,最概括。
二 “聽”是一个字
聽,平声,有收受声音(如〈论语檀弓〉:“夫子式而聽之”)、采信、取信(如〈宋史〉卷四四二〈苏舜欽传〉:“大臣归咎于刑狱之濫,陛下聽之”)、等候(如徐渭〈雌木兰〉第二齣:“念其劳役多年,令驰还乡休息三月,仍聽取用”)顺从(如〈韩非子五蠹〉:“民固骄于爱聽於威矣”)、耳闻之事(如诸葛亮〈出师表〉:“诚宜开张圣聽,以光先帝遗德”)、厅堂(通假,如刘义庆〈世說新語黜免〉:“大司马府聽前有一老槐甚扶疏”)、量词(英語tin之音译)和姓氏等义项。
读去声,则有治理(如:“垂帘聽政”)、裁決(如:〈论语颜渊〉:“聽讼、吾犹人也”)、任由(如〈西游记〉第九回:“这江州有个金山寺、焦山寺,聽你在那个寺里去”)等义项。
三 “听”是“聽”的俗体字
《古今正俗字诂》:“俗浅率以‘听’代减笔‘聽’字,音义俱失,殊乖大正”;如前所述,“听”与“聽”的读音和字义毫无相通之处,故曰以“听”代“聽”是“俗浅”之人“殊乖大正”的陋行。
四 “听”是“聽”的简化字
简化字并非49以后的创举。但是,49前后的汉字简化,以严谨、合理作标准的话,可以说后不如前。以“听”代“聽”,便是49后的简化字,49前并没这么做。
五 “听”还是的俗字
,“嗞愧皃”(《集韵》),读若沂。
六 小结
“听”被当作“聽”的简化字,对于我国文化最大的损失,不是让国民都变成了“俗浅”之人,每天都说着看着音义两乖的俗体字,而是让“听然而笑”这种典雅修辞在日常生活中永远消亡。

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