日知其所亡 » 泠 风 集

泠 风 集

2006年2月20日 | 分类: 未分类 | 标签:


十年前喜读哲学书,因读《海德格尔哲学概论》,对陈嘉映佩服的不得了。同时研究海氏哲学称名家者,犹有张祥龙与孙周兴;窃谓张尚穿凿,孙多隔膜,俱不若陈氏之平和正大,且常有传信传疑、入室操戈之精彩。《读书》杂志偶刊陈氏文章,见辄细读,未尝囫囵,其境况以今语“某粉某丝”之构词法概括,不妨称敝人为“加饭”。
後以生性不能沉潜,废书不观,陈氏文章遂久未亲近。今春见网上有《泠风集》出售,赶紧买来,粗读一过,重睹故人风采,乐何如之。其中,尤以《旅行人信札》(节选)及《纠缠与疏朗》最为出色。
前者,记叙作者在1981年的壮游。计其程,则自京而陕而川而滇而黔而桂而粤而闽而浙而皖而苏沪,终归于京,在地图上画了一个大圆;计其时,两月有余而已,不过是人生长途的转瞬。然此一转瞬,决不短暂;抄一段话先:
“峨嵋在名山中是最高的,海拔三千馀米,远看直冲云霄,就只从雄伟来想它。入山之後始知山势迂回,青阴覆盖,所以说‘峨嵋天下秀’而非’天下雄’。正像天下伟大的心灵,远看但见雄伟单纯,细加了解体会,其中无不可见婉转细致的佳处”;
以此写景,青山更增妩媚。以此致知,不得不赞为神解。以此论史,敝人戚戚焉而有同感矣。
在七星岩中避雨,于轰响的雨声中听到“一片清宁”,于千万重雨光中看到一株老树,“身上却簇簇青葱”,由此,作者想到了埃及法老的赞叹:“索伦,索伦,你们希腊人都是些孩子啊!”也体悟到“庄周的出世,不是心力衰竭的逃避,而是心从所适的畅达;无行地也,非绝迹焉”。
昔时敝人读书,上午看海德格尔,下午看庄子,夜则冥思,颇得出入互证之快,虽然,暗志于心而已,并不敢贸然较其短长。陈氏深得南华之旨,在《概论》中却未加以“打通”,此物此志,似可相视而笑。前谓张氏穿凿,则以其书《海德格尔思想与中国天道》太多牵强附会的地方,且有“骂题”的嫌疑,读者固不知其人于海氏哲学悟入几分,却一眼看透他在所谓“中国天道”上的见识实在肤浅,大言欺人,得不偿失,莫此为甚。陈氏尝为此书撰书评,对全书主旨痛加批驳,文末且用张氏原话回赠张氏,十分有趣,曰:“任何求至真人生的人都可以从中得到警戒:切莫沾沾自喜,将终极追求变为在一个高级的和更难逃脱的规范构架中不自觉的弄虚作假”。
《纠缠与疏朗》的副题是:海德格尔的阿伦特牵连和纳粹牵连。按,纠缠、疏朗和牵连,都是陈氏翻译海氏哲学术语所用的词语;之所以用牵连来描述海德格尔的婚外恋与政治失足,窃谓此与陈氏个人的价值判断或曰道德感有关,如他所说:
“虽然绝大多数的道德学说,我读来都像无稽之谈,但我相信那只是理论家不知道如何从理论上来阐述道德问题,并不是因为人生中原无‘道德’二字”;
就海氏的婚外恋而言,他更愿意读者去看崔卫平的《为阿伦特一辩》,谓崔文之“高明和透彻,实远在爱丁格(Elzbieta Ettinger,撰《阿伦特和海德格尔》)之上”。他的文章,重点则在于剖析海德格尔“陷贼”前后的心理,所持标准,就是上引所谓“从理论上来阐述道德问题”。对于文中具体论证的评价,不妨仁智各见,但终篇的总结,却十分高明:
“我们现在说起亚里士多德和庄子,对他曾经支持哪个政权反对哪个政权,对他曾怎样对待一个年轻情人,所知甚少,而且兴趣不大。他们的著述,就仿佛渐渐离脱了肉身的枷锁,成为纯精神的存在。说得更切实,他们的著作越来越多联系于後世的注释,越来越少联系于著者的生活”;
粗看上去,好像在捣浆糊,或者是一种优越感在作祟,但只要回看文中对海德格尔过于“装逼”——原文为:“思想家在普通人的层面上也把自己是个思想家太当回事儿了”——加以怒斥的那一段,我们就不难认识到结尾以“疏朗”来更进一解的高明。
最后解释书名。“泠风”出于《庄子·逍遥游》:“前者唱于,而随者唱喁。泠风则小和,飘风则大和”;于、喁,相和之声,泠风,小风也,飘风,大风也。泠风虽小,然“唱和大小,莫不称其所之,而各当其分”,也是“天籁”之一种(郭象注)。至所谓“天籁”,则不过是“吹万不同,而使其自己也”。
读此书竟,洵乎于喁之间,中西新旧之学,莫不称心安分;而书里书外,小和大和,亦皆能“使其自己”。尚矣。

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