日知其所亡 » 士大夫之学

士大夫之学

2006年12月26日 | 分类: 未分类 | 标签:

  余英时论曾国藩之治学,谓可分为两个阶段。第一阶段,叫做“猛火煮”。其时,国藩虽为翰林,却常因学殖浅陋,为人所笑,乃下定决心,“屏除一切,从事于克己之学”(道光廿二年家书),要求自己每日须写字若干、抄书若干、读书若干,“虽极忙,亦须了本日功课”(道光廿四年家书)。成效甚著,仅道光廿四年下半年,他便读完《后汉书》、《王荆公文集》、《归震川文集》与《诗经大全》,皆施圈批,一丝不苟。第二个阶段,则是嗣后二十余年的“慢火温”,大致可总结为:生书快读以求广博,旧书熟读以求约取;读书范围,以义理、词章、经济、考据四科为限。余英时之喻,出于《朱子语类》,是说做学问就像熬一锅汤,“须爇猛火先煮,方用慢火煮”;然则曾国藩最末熬成一锅什么样的汤呢?看他自己如何说:“吾生平读书百无一成,而于古人为学之津途,实已窥见其大”(咸丰九年家书)。对此,余英时做了一个有趣的解释,称国藩没有走“专家”的道路,而是完成了自己的“士大夫之学”,庶几等同于西方的“通识”教育。因为,渊源于欧洲文艺复兴时代人文主义的“通识”教育,与中国传统“士大夫之学”一样,皆以塑造完美人格为最高理想,而不仅追求精于一艺的专业成就(《曾国藩与“士大夫之学”》,载广西师大版《余英时文集》第九卷)。
  只是,要修成塑造完美人格的“士大夫之学”,除了读书,必还有一份具体的行为指南,余英时的文章于此未作评述,不免遗憾。欲考察某人的日常行为,自以研究其人《日记》为最便,然而,岳麓版《曾国藩全集》所收《日记》恰恰缺少这部分内容。自道光廿六年至咸丰七年的日记,《全集》俱付阙如,其中,绝大部分因曾国藩座船遭太平军火攻而被焚毁,永不可见;而咸丰元、二年间的日记,尚存人间,惜编者不察,遂致遗珠。1965年,台湾学生书局出版十巨册《湘乡曾氏文献》,第六册为《绵绵穆穆之室日记》,正是这份日记记载了曾氏修习“士大夫之学”的全部课程。
  日记格式比较特别,合二页为一日,每页四栏,各有标题(即日课),依次为读书、静坐、属文、作字、办公、课子、对客与回信。有事则记,无则从缺,这是日记的“体例”,略作统计,几乎无日不记者有读书、办公、课子、对客四事。其时国藩兼任礼、刑二部侍郎(略当今日之副部长),政务繁忙,办公对客无暇晷,可想而知。二年间所读书有两个特点,一是多读经济之书,如治河、漕运、礼制、钱法之类,且极有针对性,如听闻广西发生暴乱,即开始读戚继光的《纪效新书》,琢磨治军用兵之法;一是根据儿子的教学进度,顺便给自己补课,如教儿子读《尚书》,对拿不准的地方他一定预先温习,决不“以其昏昏,使人昭昭”。然公退犹不废读书,不忘教子,似稍异于常人。至于静坐,并非如理学家所说,能穷万物之理,不过抽空打个盹而已——“未初(午后一点钟),在坐曲肱枕睡”。属文、作字,则多属应酬,以赠序、对联为多。如此,就是曾氏“士大夫之学”的主修课。
  不过,看这每一天每一门课,实在卑卑无奇,于是,有人要问了:靠这个真能修成“士大夫之学”?答曰:好像不行。再问:若生命不息,上课不止,历数十年如一日,是不是能修成此学,也做一回文正公?答曰:好像也不行。为什么?因为,在这份日记里,曾国藩已作解答,那就是:“莫问收获,但问耕耘”。

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