日知其所亡 » 应 景

应 景

2008年1月19日 | 分类: 未分类 | 标签:

七朝诗与史 一个伤心人
王闿运一生,经历七个朝代。清代道光十三年,他降生;咸丰七年,他中举;同治十年,撰《圆明园词》;光绪七年,成《湘军志》;宣统三年,特授翰林院侍讲;中华民国五年,逝世。然屈指一数,只有六种纪年,哪来的七个朝代?原来,咸、同之间,还有一个短命的祺祥纪年。
咸丰十一年七月,清文宗临殁,命八位大臣辅佐幼主(穆宗),直至成年,史称“顾命八大臣”,旋订明年纪元为“祺祥”。当时,皇太后有两位,一是正宫娘娘(孝贞),一是小皇帝的生母(孝钦)。她们联合文宗之弟恭亲王发动政变,于是年十月,处死八大臣中的载垣、端华与肃顺,夺取了政权。随即定下“垂帘听政”之制,并废除祺祥年号,改元同治。因此,祺祥这个年号,尚未启用,即告终结,实在短命得很。
短命的祺祥纪年,对闿运来说,意义重大。因为,八大臣中掌握实权的肃顺,与他的关系极不寻常。肃顺被当作“大奸”处死,已成惊弓之鸟的闿运犹未噤声,云:“人诋逆臣,我自府主”——肃顺是好人是坏人?我不关心,我只知道他是我的老板。史载,肃顺是一个极有才能的人,他对寄生的既得利益阶级与低效的官僚体系深致痛恨,一旦大权在握,乃锐意革新。他不恤人言,不顾退路,所行改革,其幅度之大(削减旗民福利)、手段之猛(因科场弊案,力主判处大学士柏葰死刑)与理路之新(重用汉人,一变清代二百年来重满抑汉的传统),令天下人啧啧称奇。而重用汉人之事,如青睐郭嵩焘、为左宗棠释谤、大力支持胡林翼与曾国藩建设湘军,皆与闿运建言有关。而闿运能以新进少年身份,从容游历湘军各大营,备受统帅尊崇,亦得益于他对肃顺的影响力。当他听到太后、亲王将不利于肃顺的消息,紧急致书曾国藩,劝他率兵入京,“申明祖制”(制止垂帘听政),维持“亲贤并用”(亲谓恭王,贤谓肃顺)的局面。无奈国藩“得书不报”,由此未能改变历史,闿运多年以後思及此事,仍不禁“太息痛恨”。直到民国初年,胜朝故事不必讳言,闿运乃撰《祺祥故事》,将二后一王篡权的真相公之于众,兼为含冤的“府主”恢复名誉。
祺祥政变,改变了闿运一生的走向。世传他有“帝王术”,非谓他有“帝王思想”,而是说他自诩具备“应帝王”的才能,能作“帝王师”。要实现这个理想,缺了肃顺不行。因为,肃顺倘能顺利“顾命”,自能大力影响穆宗;闿运对肃顺有影响,则亦能间接影响穆宗。肃顺是闿运成为“帝王师”的唯一途径。肃顺被杀,则此路不通,以此,闿运自撰挽联,云:“纵横计不就,空留馀咏满江山”。
“馀咏”二字,谓闿运没当成“帝王师”,终以文豪身份名世。他是近代诗坛“湖湘派”的巨擘(汪辟疆),也是近代文坛惟一“尽雅”的作家(章炳麟语),至于《湘军志》,更是希踪两汉、文质彬彬的大手笔。只是,对闿运来说,这不过是满腹“纵横”之才无处展布,退而求其次,以边脚“馀”料换来的浅斟低唱而已,何足道哉。

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